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Glossary of Trade & Shipping Terms - D

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  • D - District Office
  • d - Draught
  • D-RAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • D. - Delivery, Delivered
  • D.A.A. - Documents against acceptance
  • D.B. - Day Book, Deals and battens (timber trade)
  • d.b. - Deals and battens (timber)
  • d.b.b. - Deals, battens and boards
  • D.D. - Damage done
  • D.D.C. - Damage done in collision
  • D.D.E. - Direct data entry
  • d.d.o. - Despatch discharging only
  • d.f. - Dead freight
  • D.F. - Direction finder
  • d.l.o. - Despatch loading only
  • d.l.o. - Dispatch loading only
  • d.p. - Direct port
  • d.p.r. - Daily pro rata
  • D.R.C. - Damaged received in collision
  • D.T.B.A. - Days to be agreed, date to be advised
  • D.T.I. - Department of Trade and Industry
  • d.w. - Deadweight
  • D.W.A.T. - Deadweight all told
  • d.w.c. - Deadweight capacity
  • d.w.t. - Deadweight tonnage
  • D/A - Deposit account, Days after acceptance, Documents against acceptance, Discharge afloat, Deductible average
  • D/A - Documents Against Acceptance
  • D/C - Deviation clause
  • D/d - Days after date, Days' date
  • D/D - Demand Draft, Delivered at Docks, Damage Done
  • D/N - Debit note
  • D/O - Delivery order
  • D/P - Documents against payment
  • D/R - Deposit receipt
  • D/s - Days after sight
  • D/V - Dual Valuation
  • D/W - Dock warrant
  • DA - Development Assistance
  • DAC - Development Assistance Committee
  • DACON - Data on Consulting Firms
  • DAEs - Dynamic Asian Economies
  • Dairy Export Incentive Program - DEIP, one of four export subsidy programs operated by the Department of Agriculture, helps U.S. exporters meet prevailing world prices for targeted dairy products and destinations. USDA pays cash to U.S. exporters as bonuses, allowing them to sell certain U.S. dairy products in targeted countries at prices below the exporter's costs of acquiring them. DEIP is used to help products produced by U.S. farmers meet competition from subsidizing countries.
  • DANIDA - Danish International Development Assistance
  • Danish International Development Assistance - Danish development assistance is directed toward alleviating poverty by promoting economic growth and social development. Recent DANIDA policy is to increase aid quality by establishing long-term program cooperation with fewer (20-to-25) developing countries, by emphaiszing grants instead of loans, by strengthening the role of women in development, and by promoting respect for human rights and democractic values. About half of Danish aid is bilateral assistance intended to reach the least privileged in the poorest countries, about half the bilateral assistance is allocated to the countries classified by the UN as least developed countries. Most of the remaining aid is granted as multilateral assistance through international orgnizations -- the UN system, the regional development banks, the European Community, and as humanitarian assistance. Following a May 1991 restructuring of Danish aid administration, DANIDA has ceased to exist as an organization but is used to denote official Danish cooperation with developing countries. That reorganization established a South Group in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as the locus of development assistance. South Group headquarters are in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Data on Consulting Firms - DACON is a computerized roster of consulting firms interested in doing business on World Bank-financed projects. The Bank uses DACON registrations to select firms to be considered for short lists (that is, a select list of firms to be invited to submit proposals) as well as to review the qualifications of firms proposed by the borrower. Registration eligibility includes minimum size and experience requirements. Consulting firms are not required to register; registration does not constitute the Bank's endorsement of the firm's qualifications or the Bank's approval of the firm's appointment for any specific project. The use of the acronym DACON is not limited to the World Bank; for example, the Inter-American Development Bank also maintains data on consultants in its separately administered DACON.
  • Date Draft - A draft which matures a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of acceptance.
  • DBGLS - Development Bank of the Great Lakes States
  • Dbk. - Drawback
  • DCM - Deputy Chief of Mission
  • DCS - Defense Conversion Subcommittee
  • dd. - Delivered
  • dd/s. - Delivered sound (grain trade)
  • Debt Swaps - See: Swaps.
  • DEC - District Export Council
  • Declaration by Foreign Shipper - The U.S. Customs Service defines this term as a statement by the shipper in the foreign country attesting to certain facts. For example, articles shipped from the United States to an insular possession and then returned must be accompanied by a declaration by the shipper in the insular possession, indicating that, to the best of his or her knowledge, the articles were exported directly from the United States to the insular possession and remained there until the moment of their return to the United States. (see 19 CFR 4.60 and 4.61 on U.S. clearance of vessels bound for a foreign port or ports.)
  • Ded. - Deductible
  • Def.a/c - Deferred account
  • Defense Conversion - "Defense conversion," as applicable to conversion of U.S. defense activity, is the transfer of defense production capabilities to non-defense production, either non-defense industrial products (e.g., pumps and valves) or consumer goods. The Russians, according to their Defense Conversion Law, have a broader definition, which includes the possiblity of a plant maintaining its defense production while expanding its non-defense production for other purposes, including the generation of hard-currency exports.
  • Defense Conversion Subcommittee - The DCS promotes trade between U.S. industry and the Russian defense sector by identifing investment opportunities, supporting changes in U.S. government export control and other policies which limit opportunities for U.S. industry to participate in Russian defense conversion activities, and identifying prospective business contacts for U.S. industry. Subcommittee membership includes the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, Labor, and State, the Agency for International Development, the Export-Import Bank, and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. DCS is a subcommittee of the Intergovernmental U.S.-Russia Business Development Committee which was established in June 1992.
  • Defense Memoranda of Understanding - Defense MOUs are defense cooperation agreements. The MOUs are signed by DOD with allied nations and are related to research, development, or production of defense equipment or reciprocal procurement of defense items. See: Coproduction.
  • Defense Priorities and Allocation System - The goals of the DPAS are to: (a) assure the timely availability of industrial resources to meet current national defense requirements and (b) provide a framework for rapid industrial expansion in case of a national emergency. The authority for DPAS, which is administered by the Commerce Department's Bureau of Export Administration, extends from Title I of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (DPA). While the DPAS is designed to be largely self-executing, Special Priorities Assistance (SPA) may be provided, including: (a) timely delivery of items needed to fill priority rated defense contracts, (b) granting priority rating authority, and (c) resolving production and delivery conflicts between rated defense contracts. See: Defense Production Act.
  • Defense Production Act - Under authority of the Defense Production Act (DPA) of 1950 and related executive Order 12656, the Commerce Department is charged with identifying critical defense-related industries, assessing their capability to meet peacetime and national security needs, identifying current and potential production constraints, and proposing remedial actions as appropriate. Title I of the DPA requires that: (a) contracts or orders relating to certain approved defense and energy programs be accepted and performed on a preferential basis over all other contracts and orders and (b) materials, facilities, and services be allocated in such a manner as to promote approved programs. See: Defense Priorities and Allocation System.
  • Defense Technology Security Administration - DTSA is the DOD organization that reviews applications for the export of items that are subject to the dual-use license controls of the Commerce Department and the munitions controls of the Department of State. DTSA has about 130-to-140 staff, is located in the Office of the Secretary, and administers DOD technology security policy so that the U.S. is not technologically surprised on the battlefield. DTSA reviews applications involving dual-use items for reasons of national security, proliferation cases and munitions controls. See: Foreign Disclosure and Technical Information System.
  • Defense Trade Advisory Group - In March 1992, the Department of State established the Defense Trade Advisory Group to provide consultation and coordination with U.S. defense exporters. DTAG members are drawn from the U.S. defense industry, associations, academia, and foundations, and include technical and military experts, and the State Department and observers from other government agencies. Members of the Committee are appointed by the Assistant Secretary of State for Politico-Military Affairs. DTAG has three main working groups: - Policy Working Group (PWG): which provides advice on broad issues of defense trade, technology transfer and commercial arms sales in an effort to aid State in regulating commercial munitions exports. - Regulatory Working Group (RWG): which provides advice on possible changes and improvements to regulations and procedures related to defense exports of munitions articles, technical data and software related to defense articles. - Technical Working Group (TWG): which provides on technical issues related to the U.S. Munitions List.
  • Defense Trade Controls - DTC (formerly: the Office of Munitions Control, OMC) at State administers licenses for the export of defense articles and services including arms, ammunition, and implements of war. These items are listed in the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and the U.S. Munitions List. DTC is involved in the commodity jurisdiction (CJ) process. The CJ process is used to determine whether a particular item should be transferred to another control list (primarily, whether an item may be subject to the ITAR or considered either dual-use and subject to the Commodity Control List). See: International Traffic in Arms Regulations.
  • Defense Trade Regulations - The Defense Trade Regulations (formerly known as the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, ITAR) are administered by the State Department to control the export of weapons and munitions.
  • Defense Trade Working Group - The Defense Trade Working Group (DTWG), consisting of officials from Commerce, Defense, State and USTR, was established in FY 1990 to coordinate agency policies and resources in areas concerned with defense expenditures. The group works with industry to identify ways to target industry needs and increase the success of industry export efforts by minimizing government impediments, streamlining procedures, and improve the availability of market information. The DTWG includes three subgroups: - The Defense Exports Working Group, chaired by Commerce, which helps implement Administration defense export policy and enhances U.S. government support for U.S. defense exporters; - The European Defense Cooperation Group, chaired by State, which coordinates interagency input to U.S.-NATO International Staff for the NATO Council on National Armaments Directors (CNAD) study on defense trade; and - The Technology Transfer and Third Party Reexport Group, chaired by Defense, which works with industry to define a more proactive technology transfer regime that could be implemented within the limits of U.S. national security and industrial competitiveness interests.
  • Definitional Missions - See: Trade and Development Agency.
  • DEG - Deutsche Finanzierungsgesellschaft fur Beteilgungen in, Entwicklungslndern GmbH
  • DEIP - Dairy Export Incentive Program
  • Delivered at Frontier - "Delivered at Frontier" means that the seller's obligations are fulfilled when the goods have arrived at the frontier -- but before "the customs border" of the country named in the sales contract. The term is primarily intended to apply to goods by rail or road but is also used irrespective of the mode of transport.
  • Delivered/Duty Paid - While the term "Ex Works" signifies the seller's minimum obligation, the term "Delivered Duty Paid", when followed by words naming the buyer's premises, denotes the other extreme -- the seller's maximum obligation. The term "Delivered Duty Paid" may be used irrespective of the mode of transport. If the parties wish that the seller should clear the goods for import but that some of the cost payable upon the import of the goods should be excluded -- such as value added tax (VAT) and/or other similar taxes -- this should be made clear by adding words to this effect (e.g., "exclusive of VAT and/or taxes").
  • Delivery Instructions - Provides specific information to the inland carrier concerning the arrangement made by the forwarder to deliver the merchandise to the particular pier or steamship line. Not to be confused with Delivery Order which is used for import cargo.
  • Delivery Verification Certificate - The U.S. Customs Service defines a DVC as a form used to track imported merchandise from the custody of the importer to the custody of a manufacturer and is used to substantiate a manufacturing drawback claim. The DVC is also known as a Certificate of Delivery (Customs Form 331). An export license may be issued with a requirement for delivery verification by Customs in the receiving country. When delivery verification is required by a foreign government for goods imported into the U.S., the U.S. Customs Service will certify a delivery verification certificate (Form ITA-647). A U.S. export license may require submission of a similar form from an importing country.
  • dely. and re-dely. - Delivery and re-delivery
  • Demarche - Official discussion with another government carried out on instructions.
  • Demurrage - Excess time taken for loading or unloading a vessel, thus causing delay of scheduled departure. Demurrage refers only to situations in which the charter or shipper, rather than the vessel's operator, is at fault.
  • Demurrage - Excess time taken for loading or unloading of a vessel not caused by the vessel operator, but due to the acts of a charterer or shipper. Also refers to imported cargo not picked up within prescribed time.
  • Department of Trade and Industry - See: British Overseas Trade Board.
  • Deposit of Estimated Duties - This refers to antidumping duties which must be deposited upon entry of merchandise which is the subject of an antidumping duty order for each manufacturer, producer or exporter equal to the amount by which the foreign market value exceeds the United States price of the merchandise. See: Tariff Act of 1930.
  • Derivatives - Derivatives are leveraged instruments that are linked to either specific financial instruments or indicators (such as foreign currencies, government bonds, share price indices, or interest rates) or to particular commodities (such as gold, sugar, or coffee) that may be purchased or sold at a future date. Derivatives may also be linked to a future exchange, according to contractual arrangement, of one asset for another. The instrument, which is a contract, may be tradable and have a market value. Among derivative instruments are options (on currencies, interest rates, commodities, or indices), traded financial futures, warranties, and arrangements such as currency and interest rate swaps.
  • derrick - Lifting equipment on board a ship generally used for loading and discharging cargo.
  • despatch - An agreed upon amount of money that is paid by the shipowner to the shipper or receiver, when loading or discharging is performed faster than the allotted time.
  • Destination Control Statement - Exporters are required to place destination control statements on commercial invoices and bills of lading for most export sales. These statements alert foreign recipients of goods and documents that diversion contrary to U.S. law is prohibited. Destination control statements are discussed in the Code of Federal Regulations (15 CFR 786.5 and 786.6).
  • Det. - Detained
  • Deutsche Finanzierungsgesellschaft fur Beteilgungen in Entwicklungslandern GmbH - DEG (English: German Financing Company for Investments in Developing Countries) promotes direct private-sector investment in developing countries and provides advisory services in planning and implementing jointly financed and managed companies. DEG operations emphasize matching small and medium sized German companies with similar third world counterparts. See: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau.
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit - The GTZ (English: German Agency for Technical Cooperation) plans, executes, and monitors technical cooperation projects and programs in conjunction with partner organizations in developing countries. The agency provides advisory services to German and other national organizations, selects and trains experts, and releases project funds. See: Deutsche Finanzierungsgesellschaft fur Beteilgungen in Entwicklungslandern GmbH Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau.
  • Development Assistance - DA refers to specific economic assistance provided by the Agency for International Development. DA includes "functional" accounts that emphasize long-term development objectives for Agriculture, Rural Development and Nutrition; Population Planning; Health; Child Survival Fund; AIDS Prevention and Control; Education and Human Resources Development; Private Sector; Energy and Environment, and Science and Technology Corporation, as well as the Development Fund for Africa, and other assistance -- the Special Assistance Initiatives and Humanitarian and Technical Assistance for the former Soviet republics. See: Economic Support Fund.
  • Development Assistance Committee - The DAC, which consists of most members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), coordinates member country aid policies and programs to Lesser Developed Countries.
  • Development Bank of the Great Lakes States - The DBGLS (French: Banque du Developpement des Etats du Grand Lac, BDEGL) provides technical and financial assistance to promote socio-economic development among its members: Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire. The Bank was established in 1977; headquarters are in Goma, Zaire. See: Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries.
  • Development Fund for Africa - The DFA channels all U.S. development assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Fund has put emphasis on certain sectors, including agricultural production in connection with the preservation of natural resources, health, voluntary family planning, education, and income generation. The Fund is administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development; it was enacted by Congress in 1987. See: African Development Foundation African Development Fund.
  • DF - Designated Federal Officer
  • DFA - Development Fund for Africa
  • Dft. - Draft
  • Direct Exporting - Sale by an exporter directly to a buyer located in a foreign country.
  • Direct Investment - Direct investment is defined in the International Monetary Fund's Balance of Payments Manual as "investment that is made to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor, the investor's purpose being to have an effective voice in the management of the enterprise." In the United States, direct investment is defined for statistical purposes as the ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one person of 10 percent of more of the voting securities of an incorporated business enterprise or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated business enterprise. Direct investment transactions are not limited to transactions in voting securities. The percentage ownership of voting securities is used to determine if direct investment exists, but once it is determined that it does, all parent-affiliate transactions, including those not involving voting securities, are recorded under direct investment. See: Foreign Direct Investment in the United States Foreign Person U.S. Affiliate.
  • Direction des Relations Economiques Exterieures - DREE, located in the French Ministry of Economic Affairs, Finance and Budget, is the main policymaking agency for export promotion and credit activities. DREE oversees the activities of other agencies that provide domestic and overseas export assistance, including the French Center for Foreign Commerce (Centre Francais du Commerce Exterieur, CFCE) and the French equivalent of the U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service (the Poste d'Expansion Economique). DREE also coordinates France's interagency position on trade issues, negotiates bilateral trade agreements, and participates in the multilateral trade talks in the European Community and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Within France, CFCE is the primary point of contact for export promotion services, while overseas, the Poste d'Expansion Economique provides promotional services to French firms. Through a network of regional offices in France, CFCE counsels exporters and organizes overseas trade events. CFCE also gathers and distributes trade information.
  • Dirty Float - Dirty float refers to a system in which the float of exchange rates is partially determined by government intervention or restrictions to limit appreciation or depreciation; sometimes known as managed float. See: Clean Float.
  • Dis. - Discount
  • Disbts. - Disbursements
  • DISC - Domestic International Sales Corporation
  • discharge - Remove goods from a ship.
  • Disclosure Meeting - An informal meeting at which ITA discloses to parties to the proceeding the methodology used in determining the results of an antidumping investigation or administrative review. A disclosure meeting is generally held promptly after the preliminary or final determinations of an investigation or promptly after the preliminary or final results of a review. See: Tariff Act of 1930.
  • DISH - Data interchange in Shipping
  • Dismissal of Petition - A determination made by the Commerce Department's International Trade Administration that the petition does not properly allege the basis on which antidumping duties may be imposed, does not contain information deemed reasonably available to the petitioner supporting the allegations, or is not filed by an appropriate interested party. This dismissal causes termination of the proceeding. See: Tariff Act of 1930.
  • Dispatch - An amount paid by a vessel's operator to a charter if loading or unloading is completed in less time than stipulated in the charter agreement.
  • Dispatch - An amount paid to a charterer by the vessel operator if loading or unloading is accomplished in less time than provided for in the charter party.
  • Displ. - Displacement
  • Dispute Settlement - This refers to the resolution of opposing aims often facilitated through the efforts of an intermediary. In the GATT context, dispute settlement provides opportunities for individual contracting parties to resolve trade problems through negotiated means or with the help Applicants and consignees must establish Internal Control Programs to ensure the proper distribution of items under the DL. Each program must include comprehensive procedures for ensuring that the items exported will be used only for legitmate end-uses.
  • Distributor - A foreign agent who sells directly for a manufacturer and maintains an inventory on hand.
  • Distributor - A foreign agent who sells directly for a supplier and maintains an inventory of the supplier's products.
  • District Export Councils - DECs serve as a voluntary auxiliary of US&FCS district offices to support export expansion activities. There are 51 DECs with 1500 members which help with workshops and also provide counseling to less experienced exporters.
  • Diversionary Dumping - This occurs when foreign producers sell to a third country market at less than fair value and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • Diversionary Dumping - This occurs when foreign producers sell to a third country market at less than fair value and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • DK. - Deck
  • DL - Distribution License
  • dm - Decimeter
  • DMP - District Marketing Plan
  • DMs - Definitional Missions
  • Dock Receipt - A dock receipt is used to transfer accountability when the export item is moved by the domestic carrier to the port of embarkation and left with the international carrier for export.
  • Dock Receipt - A receipt given for a shipment received or delivered at a shipment pier. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or his agent and serves as basis for preparation of the Ocean Bill of Lading.
  • Document Collections -- Documents Against Payment - Stipulate that the exporter ships goods to the importer without a letter of credit or another form of guaranteed payment. The importer must sign a sight draft before receiving the necessary documents to pick up the goods. Documents Against Acceptance (D/A) are instructions given by a shipper to a bank stating that the documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer only upon the signing of a time draft. In this manner an exporter extends credit to the importer and agrees to accept payment at a readily determined future date. See: Draft Bill of Exchange.
  • Documents Against Acceptance - Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer (or drawee) only upon the buyer's acceptance (signature on) of the attached draft.
  • Documents Against Payment (D/P) - A type of payment for goods in which the documents transferring title to the goods are not given to the buyer until he has paid the value of a draft issued against him.
  • Domestic Exports - Exports of domestic merchandise include commodities which are grown, produced, or manufactured in the United States, and commodities of foreign origin which have been substantially changed in the United States, including U.S. Foreign Trade Zones, from the form in which they were imported, or which have been enhanced in value by further manufacture in the United States.
  • Domestic International Sales Corporation - The predecessor of the Foreign Sales Corporation which took on a new definition as a result of the 1984 Tax Reform Act. DISCs can now provide a tax deferral on up to $10 million of exports so long as the funds remain in export-related investments.
  • Domicile - The place where a draft or acceptance is made payable.
  • Downstream Dumping - This occurs when foreign producers sell at below cost to a producer in its domestic market, and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • Downstream Dumping - This occurs when foreign producers sell at below cost to a producer in its domestic market and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • DPA - Defense Production Act
  • DPAS - Defense Priorities and Allocation System
  • Dr. - Debit. Debtor. Drawer
  • draft - Alternative spelling of draught.
  • Draft Bill of Exchange - A written, unconditional order for payment from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee). It directs the drawee to pay a specified sum of money, in a given currency, at a specific date to the drawer. A Sight Draft calls for immediate payment (on sight) while a Time Draft calls for payments at a readily determined future date.
  • draught - Designates the depth of water available at a port or place.
  • Drawback - A partial refund of duties paid on importation of goods which are further processed and then re-exported, or exported in same condition as imported.
  • Drawback - Drawback is a rebate by a government, in whole or in part, of customs duties assessed on imported merchandise that is subsequently exported. Drawback regulations and procedures vary among countries.
  • Drawback System - The Drawback System, a part of Customs' Automated Commercial System, provides the means for processing and tracking of drawback claims.
  • Drawee - The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the indicated amount.
  • Drawer - The individual or firm that issues or signs a draft and thus stands to receive payment of the indicated amount from the drawee.
  • dreading - Option general cargo
  • DREE - Direction des Relations Economiques Exterieures
  • dry cargo - Any commodity which is not liquid.
  • DTAG - Defense Trade Advisory Group
  • DTI - Department of Trade and Industry
  • DTR - Defense Trade Regulations
  • DTSA - Defense Technology Security Administration
  • DTWG - Defense Trade Working Group
  • Dual Pricing - The selling of identical products in different markets for different prices. This often reflects dumping practices.
  • Dual Pricing - The selling of identical products in different markets for different prices. This often reflects dumping practices.
  • Dumping - Dumping is generally seen as an unfair trading practice. It occurs when a good is sold for less than its "fair value", generally meaning it is exported for less than it is sold in the domestic market or third country markets, or it is sold for less than production cost. Article VI of the GATT permits the imposition of special anti-dumping duties against dumped goods, equal to the difference between their export price and their ''fair value'' in the export market, if dumping causes injury in the importing country.
  • Dumping - The sale of a commodity in a foreign market at less than fair value. Dumping is generally recognized as unfair because the practice can disrupt markets and injure producers of competitive products in an importing country. Article VI of the GATT permits imposition of antidumping duties equal to the difference between the price sought in the importing country and the normal value of the product in the exporting country. With price-to-price dumping, the foreign producer can use its sales in the high-priced market (usually the home market) to subsidize its sales in the low-priced export market. The price difference is often due to protection in the high-priced market. Price-cost dumping indicates that the foreign supplier has a special advantage. Sustained sales below cost are normally possible only if the sales are somehow subsidized.
  • Dumping Margin - The amount by which the imported merchandise is sold in the United States below the home market or third country price or the constructed value (that is, at less than its "fair value"). For example, if the U.S. "purchase price" is $200 and the fair value is $220, the dumping margin is $20. This margin is expressed as a percentage of the United States price. In this example, the margin is 10 percent. See: Tariff Act of 1930.
  • Duty - A tax imposed on imports by the customs authority of a country. Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factors such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties).
  • Duty - A tax levied by a government on the import, export or use and consumption of goods.
  • DVC - Delivery Verification Certificate
  • dwt - Deadweight tonnage
  • Dy - Delivery
  • Dynamic Asian Economies - The DAEs is a collective reference, currently comprising six Asian countries: Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.
 
 
 
 
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