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Glossary of Trade & Shipping Terms - N

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  • n.a. - Information not available. Net absolutely
  • n.a.a. - Not always afloat
  • N.A.S.D.I.M. - National Association of Securities Dealers and Investment Managers
  • N.A.T.O. - Noth Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • N.C.A.R. - No claim for accident reported
  • N.C.V. - No commercial value
  • n.d.w. - Net dead weight
  • n.e. - Not exceeding
  • N.E.D.C. - National Economic Development Council
  • n.e.p. - Not elsewhere provided
  • n.e.s. - Not elsewhere specified
  • N.H.P. - Nominal horse-power
  • N.K.K. - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai
  • N.K.O.R.L. - No known or reported loss
  • N.M.A. - (Lloyd's) Underwriters Non-Marine Association
  • N.O.C. - Notice of cancellation
  • n.o.p. - Not otherwise provided
  • n.p. - Net proceeds
  • n.r. - No risk, net register
  • n.r.a.d. - No risk after discharge
  • n.s.p.f. - Not specifically provided for
  • N.V. - Norske Veritas
  • N.V.O.C.C. - Non vessel operating common carrier
  • N/a - No advice, No account, Not applicable
  • N/C - New charter, New crop
  • N/f - No funds
  • N/m - No mark
  • N/N - Not north of
  • N/o - No orders (banking)
  • n/s - Not sufficient
  • NAC - National Advisory Council on International Monetary and, Financial Policies
  • Nacional Financiera - NAFIN promotes growth in Mexico's priority development areas. NAFIN provides financial assistance to small and medium-sized Mexican businesses, encourages foreign investment in Mexico, and supports technological development in Mexico. NAFIN headquarters are in Mexico City, Mexico.
  • NADBank - North American Development Bank
  • NAFIN - Nacional Financiera
  • NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement
  • NAL - National Agricultural Library
  • NAM - Non-Aligned Movement
  • NAP - Amsterdam Ordnance Datum
  • NASDA - National Association of State Departments of Agriculture, National Association of State Development Agencies
  • NAT - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies - The NAC is responsbile for coordinating U.S. participation in the international financial institutions and the policies and practices of agencies of the U.S. government that make, or participate in making, foreign loans or that engage in foreign financial, exchange, or monetary transactions. With regard to international financial institutions, the Council seeks to ensure that their operations are conducted in a manner consistent with U.S. policies and objectives and with lending and other foriegn financial activities of U.S. government agencies. The Council formulates and reviews policies and programs for use by the U.S. representatives to these institutions and advises the Secretary of the Treasury on:- Policies and selected proposed transactions of the institutions; - Proposed actions by these institutions requiring U.S. approval on such subjects as the flotation of securities, increases in quotas and subscriptions, and changes in their articles of agreement; and - Problems relating to the administration and management of the international finnancial institutions. NAC membership includes: the Departments of the Treasury (as chair), State, and Commerce, the U.S. Trade Representative, the Federal Reserve System, the Export-Import Bank, and the International Development Cooperation Agency.
  • National Agricultural Library - In its international role, the NAL cooperates in database production, compilation of world lists of journals, publication exchange, cooperative indexing, and intern training. The NAL serves as the U.S. center for the international agricultural information system. The NAL's AGRICOLA database covers all aspects of agriculture via bibliographic records to documents, including international agricultural trade topics such as policy, research, flows of commodities, environmental, taxation, and sociological impacts. AGRICOLA is produced soley by the NAL. The NAL's Agricultural Trade and Marketing Information Center (ATMIC) disseminates information on agribusiness, countertrade (barter), exports, and trade development. The NAL is located in Beltsville, Maryland. See: Agriculture Information System.
  • National Association of State Departments of Agriculture - NASDA is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization of the 50 state departments of agriculture and those from the trust territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands. Headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
  • National Association of State Development Agencies - The National Association of State Development Agencies, NASDA, was formed in 1946 to provide a forum for directors of state economic development agencies to exchange information, compare programs, and deal with issues of mutual interest. NASDA's organization includes International Trade and Foreign Investment components. Trade activities include maintenance of a State Export Program Database.
  • National Defense Executive Reserve - The NDER Program, which is operated by the Commerce Department's Bureau of Export Administration, recruits and trains experienced business executives and other qualified civilians to serve in key government positions during periods of emergency. These reservists would augment Department of Commerce staff as required to respond to national security emergencies.
  • National Intelligence Council - The NIC is comprised of the U.S. National Intelligence Officers and concentrates on problems of particular geographic regions and functional areas such as economics and chemical/biological warfare.
  • National Security Controls - National security controls restrict exports of U.S. goods and technology which would make a significant contribution to the military potential of another country and thus be detrimental to Western countries' national security.
  • National Security Council - The NSC was established by the National Security Act of 1947 to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security.
  • National Security Directives - NSDs provide policy or procedural guidance and are signed by the President. In 1989, the President reorganized the national security council committee process (separate from the EARB). As reorganized, under the NSC, there are committees for CoCom, terrorism, nonproliferation, etc. NSDs were known as National Security Decision Directives, NSDDs, before President Bush's reorganization. NSD-1 reorganized the process; NSD-10 established the committees. The scope of coverage and the players are about the same under the NSD and NSDD processes.
  • National Security Override - In some cases, despite a finding of foreign availability of a controlled commodity, control is maintained over exporting the commodity because it is deemed a national security sensitive item. The term national security override is used to describe this circumstance. The term has also been used in other contexts. For example, under a November 16, 1990 directive, the President tasked the interagency control groups to move as many dual use items from the State Department's International Munitions List to the Commerce Department's Commerce Control List. In some circumstances, a national security override is applied to prevent transfer of a particular item.
  • National Tourism Policy Act - Legislation, passed in 1981, that created the U.S. Travel and Tourism Administration and required the establishment of the Tourism Policy Council and the Travel and Tourism Advisory Board.
  • National Trade Estimates Report - An annual report by USTR that identifies significant foreign barriers to and distortions of trade.
  • National Treatment - National treatment affords individuals and firms of foreign countries the same competitive opportunities, including market access, as are available to domestic parties.
  • Natural Resource Based Products - This GATT Negotiating Group was formed as a direct result of pressure from resource-rich LDCs to have an additional forum to deal with their special concerns, including the removal of barriers to trade in natural resource-based products. There are different interpretations among participants as to whether this group includes only three traditional product areas examined during the early 1980s GATT Work Program on NRBPs: non-ferrous metals and minerals; fish and fish products; and wood and wood products, or whether the Group may also discuss barriers in non-traditional product areas such as energy-based products.
  • NBA - Niger Basin Authority
  • NDAA - National Defense Authorization Act
  • NDER - National Defense Executive Reserve
  • Negotiating Group - Within the Uruguay Round, a negotiating group is a forum in which contracting parties plan and manage the multilateral negotiations dealing with a particular issue. In the Uruguay Round, there are two major groups, the Group of Negotiations on Goods (GNG) and the Group on Negotiations of Services (GNS). Within the GNG, there are 14 issue-oriented subgroups.
  • NEP - New Economic Program
  • Net Foreign Investment - Net foreign investment is the sum of U.S. exports of goods and services, receipts of factor income, and capital grants received by the United States (net), less the sum of imports of goods and services by the United States, payments of factor income, and transfer payments to foreigners (net). It may also be viewed as the acquisition of foreign assets by U.S. residents, less the acquisition of U.S. assets by foreign residents. It includes the BPA statistical discrepancy.
  • net weight - Weight of the goods only which does not include their packing.
  • New-To-Export - As defined by the International Trade Administration, a new-to-export action is one that results from documented assistance to a company that assists the client's first verifiable export sale. Either the company has not exported to any destination during the past 24 months or prior exports have resulted from unsolicited orders or were received through a U.S.-based intermediary.
  • New-To-Market - As defined by the International Trade Administration, a reportable new-to-market export action is one that results from documented assistance to an exporter that facilitates a verifiable sale in a new foreign market. Either the company has not exported to that market during the past 24 months or previous exports to that market have resulted from unsolicited orders or were received through a U.S. based intermediary.
  • Newly Independent States - The NIS is a collective reference to 12 republics of the former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus (formerly Byelorussia), Moldova (formerly Moldavia), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kirgizstan (formerly Kirghiziya) and Georgia. Following dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distinction between the NIS and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was that Georgia was not a member of the CIS. That distinction dissolved when Georgia joined the CIS in November 1993.
  • Newly Industrializing Countries - The term, originated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), describes nations of the Third World that have enjoyed rapid economic growth and can be described as "middle-income" countries (such as Singapore and the Republic of Korea).
  • Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs) - A group of developing countries which have reached a relatively advanced stage of economic growth and have experienced high growth rates in recent years. Some of the NICs are Brazil, Hong Kong, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, and Taiwan .
  • Newly Industrializing Economies - NIE's is a term generally applied to the more advanced developing countries in East Asia. The reference includes Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; occasionally its use encompasses other countries as well, such as Indonesia and Thailand.
  • NG - Non-Governmental Organization
  • NIA - Nearest international airport
  • NIB - Nordic Investment Bank
  • NIC - National Intelligence Council
  • NICs - Newly Industrialized Countries
  • NICs - Newly Industrializing Countries
  • NIE - Newly Industrialized Economy
  • NIEs - Newly Industrializing Economies
  • Niger Basin Authority - The NBA (French: Autorite du Bassin du Neiger) fosters coordinated development of the Niger Basin area. The Authority regulates navigation, publishes statistics and hydrological forecasts, promotes environmental control and agricultural and infrastructure development. NBA's predecessor organization was established in 1964; headquarters are in Niamey, Niger. NBA members include: Benin, Burkina Faso, the Cameroon, Chad, C"te d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria.
  • Nigeria Trust Fund - The NTF grants loans on preferential terms to finance projects in Nigeria in cooperation with other lending institutions. The Fund, which is administered by the African Development Bank, was established in February 1976.
  • NIPA - National Income and Product Accounts
  • Nippon Kaiji Kyokai - Japanese ship classification society.
  • Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation - NTT is Japan's largest telecommunications enterprise and was converted from a public corporation to a private enterprise in April 1985. Although competition has been allowed, the Japanese Government still owns the majority of NTT stock and postponement of a decision in NTT divestiture is an issue of considerable importance to market access by foreign companies. NTT was established in 1952.
  • NIS - Newly Independent States
  • NMEs - Nonmarket Economies
  • NNPA - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act
  • NNPT - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
  • nom. std. - Nominal standard
  • Non-Aligned Movement - The NAM is an alliance of third world states which aims to promote the political and economic interests of developing countries. The name orignated in a declaration of neutrality issued at the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in September 1961. NAM interests have included ending colonialism/neo-colonialism, supporting the integrity of independent countries and seeking a new international economic order.
  • Non-Governmental Organization - The term "NGO" is generally applied to private sector nonprofit organizations that contribute to development in developing countries through such activities as development cooperation projects, financial aid, material aid, the dispatch of personnel, the acceptance of trainees, and development education. In this context, NGOs are accredited by the United Nations or its specialized agencies and can lobby and do business with them.
  • Non-Market Economy (NME) - An economy where commercial activity is centrally planned. While the GATT has some NME members, it is difficult to enforce the rules since the GATT system is based on market principles.
  • Non-Tariff Barriers - NTBs are market access barriers that result from prohibitions, restrictions, conditions or specific requirements and make exporting products difficult and/or costly. The term covers any restriction or quota, charge, or policy, other than traditional customs duties, domestic support programs, discriminatory labeling and health standards, and exclusive business practices which limit the access of imported goods. NTBs may result from government or private sector actions.
  • Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) - These are measures other than tariffs imposed by governments which restrict imports with or without the intent to do so. Such barriers have become more prevalent since the end of World War II. Since that time, tariff rates have declined significantly while other forms of protection, such as licensing and quotas, have risen.
  • Non-Tariff Measures - While there is no specific definition of an NTM, some of the most commonly-used NTMs include import quotas or other quantitative restrictions, non-automatic import licensing, customs surcharges or other fees and charges, customs procedures, export subsidies, unreasonable standards or standards-setting procedures, government procurement restrictions, inadequate intellectual property protection, and investment restrictions. Participants in the Tokyo Round attempted to address these barriers through the negotiations of a number of GATT codes, open for signature to all GATT members. Seven codes were negotiated during the Tokyo Round, covering customs valuations, import licensing, subsidies and countervailing duties, antidumping duties, standards, government procurement, and trade in civil aircraft. - Although the Tokyo Round codes had alleviated some of the problems caused by non-tariff measures, overall use of NTMs has increased since conclusion of the Tokyo Round.
  • Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) - These differ from NTBs only in that they are actions by governments that may eventual have restrictive implications on goods traded in the world market. Though it cannot always be proven as such, an NTM is perceived as having a restrictive effect.
  • non.d. - Non delivery
  • NonVessel Owning Carrier - An NVOC is a firm which consolidates and disperses international containers that originate at, or are bound for, inland ports.
  • NORAD - Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
  • Nordic Council - The Nordic Council, established in 1952, is directed toward supporting cooperation among Nordic countries in communications, cultural, economics, environmental,, fiscal, legal, and social areas. Members include: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Council headquarters are in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Nordic Investment Bank - The NIB, which began operating in December 1975, promotes economic cooperation and development by providing resources and guarantees for exports and for capital investment projects. Bank members include: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Bank headquarters are in Helsinki, Finland.
  • North American Development Bank - The NADBank, to be capitalized and governed by the United States and Mexico, is intended to provide financing related to the North American Free Trade Agreement. The NADBank will finance projects certified by the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and support for community adjustment and investment. Up to 10 percent of NADBank resources may be made available for community adjustment and investment which need not be in the border region. See: Border Environment Cooperation Commission.
  • North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA, which entered into force in January 1994, is a free trade agreement comprising Canada, the United States and Mexico. NAFTA exceeds 360 million consumers and a combined output of $6 trillion --approximately 20 percent larger than the European Community. NAFTA's consumer population is slightly smaller than the European Economic Area which has over 380 million consumers. The Agreement: - Progressively eliminates almost all U.S.-Mexico tariffs over a 10-year period, with a small number of tariffs for trade-sensitive industries phased out over a 15-year period. Mexico-Canada tariffs are also phased out over a 10-year period. Tariff reduction schedules between the United States and Canada negotiated in the Canadian Free Trade Agreement are retained. - Eliminates other barriers to trade such as import licensing requirements and Customs user fees. - Establishes the principle of national treatment, for ensuring that NAFTA-origin products trade between NAFTA countries will receive treatment equal to similar domestic products. - Guarantees service providers of the three countries equal treatment in the NAFTA area, including the right to invest and the right to sell services across borders. - Establishes five basic principles to protect foreign investors and their investment int he free trade area: (a) nondiscriminatory treatment, (b) freedom from performance requirements, (c) free transference of funds related to an investment, (d) expropriation only in conformity with international law, and (e) the right to seek international arbitration f or a violation of the agreement's protections. The Agreement contains special provisions for sensitive economic sectors, including agriculture, automotive products, energy, and textiles and apparel. The Agreement also created a Border Environment Cooperation Commission and a North American Development Bank. See: Border Environment Cooperation Commission North American Development Bank Performance Requirements.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization - NATO members include Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France (which has only partial membership), Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and Germany. With the end of the "cold war," NATO's role, originally defense-oriented is being redefined.
  • Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation - NORAD provides financing of project exports from Norway to developing countries for development undertakings which contribute to development and which can be sustained without future external assistance. About 50 percent of Norwegian assistance is bilateral aid; the balance is channelled as multialteral aid through UN specialized agencies and financial institutions, including regional development banks. NORAD bilaterial aid includes provisions for Norwegian private industrial sector participation as suppliers of capital equipment and services and technology. A portion of assistance may involve concessional financing for Norwegian project exports, including mixed credits, export credit guarantees, support for training in connection with project exports, and tied co-financing on grant basis with the World Bank, the African Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. NORAD assistance is subject the OECD's Development Assistance Committee guidelines for development assistance and associated financing. NORAD was established in 1968; headquarters are in Oslo, Norway.
  • notify party - Group, whose name and address appear in a bill of lading, who is to be notified by the shipping company of the arrival of goods at the discharge port. There is normally a box on the bill of lading where the details of the notify party are inserted.
  • NPIS - New Product Information Service
  • NPT - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
  • NPV - Net present value
  • NRPB - Natural Resource Based Products
  • nrt - Net registered tonnage
  • NS - National Security Override
  • NSC - National Security Council
  • NSD - National Security Directive
  • NSG - Nuclear Suppliers Group
  • NTBs - Non-Tariff Barriers
  • NTDB - National Trade Data Bank
  • NTE - National Trade Estimates Report, New-To-Export
  • NTF - Nigeria Trust Fund
  • NTM - New-To-Market
  • NTMs - Non-Tariff Measures
  • NTT - Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation
  • Nuclear Energy Agency - The NEA, with headquarters in Paris, is a companion organization to the IEA and an element of OECD. NEA promotes the safe and effective use of nuclear energy through the exchange of information among technical experts, the sharing of analytical studies, and undertaking joint research and development projects by member countries.
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act - Among other actions, this Act (passed in 1974) made the U.S. Energy Department responsible for approving arrangements for nuclear exports and transfers. Each arrangement requires State Department concurrence, as well as consultations with the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the NRC, and the Departments of Defense and Commerce.
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - The NPT became effective in 1970 and was intended to limit the number of states with nuclear weapons to five: the U.S., the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China. In doing so, the NPT attempts to: (a) prevent ar technologies and materials. Over 140 states have pledged not to acquire nuclear weapons and to accept the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency over all their nuclear materials. - The treaty, however, is not of indefinite duration. One of the provisions of the treaty was to convene a conference 25 years after entry into force to decide whether the treaty would continue indefinitely or be extended for a specified time.
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission - The NRC regulates the transfer of nuclear facilities, materials and parts with uniquely nuclear applications (such as items associated with nuclear reactors). Energy regulates the transfer of information relating to nuclear technology. The State Department controls defense articles and services, such as nuclear weapons design and test equipment. Commerce controls a range of dual-use items with potential nuclear application. - License applications for the export of NRL items are reviewed by Energy and may be referred to an interagency working group known as the "Subgroup on Nuclear Export Coordination" (SNEC). The - SNEC comprises representatives from State, Defense, Commerce, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and the NRC. See: International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Suppliers Group Zangger Committee.
  • Nuclear Suppliers Group - The NSG is an organization of nuclear supplier nations, which coordinates exports of nuclear materials and equipment with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectorate regime. The reason for creating the NSG was to allow member states some flexibility (which they do not enjoy in the Zangger Committee) in controlling items to non-nuclear weapons states. The NSG's independence from the NPT enables NSG to enlist the cooperation of supplier states that are not signatories to the NPT and thus not involved in the nuclear export control activities of the Zangger Committee. The NSG's control list is more comprehensive than the Zangger Committee's "trigger list"; it requires the imposition of safeguards on exports of nuclear technology in addition to nuclear materials and equipment. The NSG developed a multilateral list for national adoption of export controls on dual-use commodities with a nuclear application.
  • NVO-MTO - Non-vessel-operating multimodal transport operator
  • NVOC - NonVessel Owning Carrier
  • NVOCC - Non-vessel-operating common carrier
 
 
 
 
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